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Essay On Internet


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Essay on Internet


Essay on Internet 300 words.


The Internet has revolutionized the way people communicate with each other across the world. The Internet is a world wide web (www) of computers exchanging information with each other through telecommunication satellites and leased lines. Initially started as a defence project of the U.S. Government in 1968, the internet’s usage has grown rapidly as a preferred medium of communication to the public at large. Recent estimates put the number of internet users at 30 billion all over the world.

 

It has three main uses- as a means of communication, as a mammoth storehouse of information of any kind, and as a new medium of commerce for buying and selling goods. Software applications like e-mail, chat, instant messaging and video-conferencing have brought people living in far off places together in a virtual world where distances do not matter anymore. Numerous websites and search programmers can dig out any information at the click of the mouse from a large variety of sources; something that no user of the traditional library can ever hope to obtain. Electronic commerce (e-commerce) applications enable buying and selling goods through virtual shopping centers and auctions. A person sitting in New York can purchase an item in an online store that can be delivered to somebody else in Mumbai in a matter of a couple of hours.

 

It has become so popular because it provides information, communication and entertainment in an economical and attractive manner. In our country also, people are rapidly opting for the internet in homes, offices and cyber cafes. The Internet is changing our lives in a way that telephone and television did long time ago. The world is truly becoming a global village.

 

   

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How does the Internet works? Or Essay on Internet


Essay on Internet 3000+ words .



Introduction of Internet

 

Internet is a global network of physical cables, which can include copper telephone wires, TV cables, and fiber optic cables. Even wireless connections like Wi-Fi and 3G/4G rely on these physical cables to access the Internet. The Internet is a global network of billions of computers and other electronic devices. With the Internet, it's possible to access almost any information, communicate with anyone else in the world, and do much more. Ever since the advent of computers, researchers have indulged in a continuous quest to bring the world closer through computers. This effort gave rise to the Internet. It is through the Internet that today millions of people communicate and share information, regardless of their location. In this topic we will focus on the basics of the Internet and also shed light upon how the Internet works along with its applications. Internet, the global resource connection millions users, is a tremendous phenomenon. The Web and offshoot of this mega network has revolutionized the way information is passed on.

 

After going through this topic, you will be able to:

·         Define Internet and elaborate its growth

·         Describe organization of Internet

·         Illustrate the world wide web

·         Describe web servers, web browsers and search engine

·         Elaborate the functions of Internet

 

 

 

INTERNET- A DEFINITION

 

 

The Internet can be defined as a network of globally connected computers that is decentralized by design. This definition can be broken down into three parts. Let’s understand each part of the definition is isolation.

 

 

Is a network: A Internet is a collection of computers. The Internet can also be referred to as a network because it is a collection of millions of computers.

 

Globally connected computers: This means that you can be connected to the Internet, regardless of your location. The Internet has brought people in the world closer by connecting computers located in the remotes of locations.

 

Decentralize design: The Internet has a decentralized design. That is, there is no centralized body that controls the way in which the Internet functions. The Internet does provide online services that are centrally administrated, but as a whole, it would not be incorrect to say that the Internet has a decentralized design. Each computer connected to the Internet is called a host. The operator/user of a particular host can choose from the millions of available Internet services and can also make services available through the Internet.

 

 

You can consider Internet to have the following characteristics:

  • A complex network- with simplified definition as a ‘network of              network’
  • Disorganized- Internet can be cumbersome and confusing, even for experienced users.
  • A decentralized system- millions of individual networks and over 200 millions individual computers connected through the world.
  • Dynamic- changing every minute of every day. On an average, a new network is connected to the Internet every 30 minutes.
  • Composed of many billions of files (web Pages).
  • Expanding exponentially- the Internet is growing at the rate not less than 15% per month.
  • Its global nature.
  • Interactivity
  • Its potential to shift the balance of power in the offline world
  • Accessibility
  • Anonymity
  • Is facilitation of republication
  • The prominence of intermediaries
  • Its reliance on hyperlinks/hypertext
  • Its long-term impact — the use of permanent archives
  • Its multimedia character
  • Its temporal indeterminacy



 

GROWTH OF INTERNET

 

The Internet which can be said to hence born thirty-five years ago as a US Defence Department Network called APPANET was initially set up with 4 hosts. In the early 80s there were only 213 registered hosts on the Internet. By 1986, the number had risen to 308 hosts connected throughout the world. By 1989, the number of networks connected had risen to five hundred. The Network Information Centre found 2,218 networks connected as of January 1990. By June 1991, the National Science Foundation Network Information Centre pegged it at close to four thousand. If we extrapolate based on current number the figure reached forty million people during 1996 one hundred million by 1998. Its current growth rate is 15 per cent monthly.

 

 

This high level of connectivity has resulted in an unparalleled degree of communication, collaboration, resource sharing, and information access. The host population of the Internet has been doubling every year since 1981. What has driven this growth more than anything is the openness of the academic community. That openness shows up in the technology of the Internet, its economics and its culture. Internet has become a forum for human communication in a wide variety of disciplines ranging from computers, medicine, bio-sciences and social sciences, etc., to art, music, sports and other recreations.


Science the early 80s, when the US government began to share their network technology with the world, there has been growth on a scale that is hard to imagine. To put it into better perspective, in the early 80s there were only 213 registered hosts on the Internet. By 1986, this number had risen to 2,308 hosts.

 

According to the Internet Society, a non-profit society that studies and promotes the use of the Internet, 134 countries had full Internet connection and an additional 5 countries had limited access (for example, 3-mail only) in 1996. Surveys performed by the International Data Corporation and Matrix Information and Directory Services founds that as of September 1997 there were between 53 and 57 million users of the Internet worldwide. The figure grant to 200 million users in 200 countries and territories by the year 2001. Today’s telephone system is still much larger: about 3 billion people around the world now talk on almost 950 million telephone lines. Also, the total numbers of host computers and users have been growing at about 33% every six months since 1988- or roughly 80% per year. The telephone service, in comparison, grows an average of about 5-10% per year.


INTERNET MANAGEMENT

 

Who manages the internet? It is often said that there is no central control, administration, or management of the Internet. While this is generally true, there are several well-known organizations that work together in a relatively well structured and roughly democratic environment to collectively participate in the research, development and management of the Internet.

  

These Internet management organizations are described in the following sections, where the ASO, CCNSO, and GNSO are part of the ICANN:

  • IAB — Internet Architecture Board
  • Accredited Domain Name Registrars.
  • NSI — Network Solutions
  • ISOC — Internet Society
  • IANA — Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
  • IRTF — Internet Research Task Force
  • IETF — Internet Engineering Task Force
  • ICANN – Internet Corporation For Assigned Names And Numbers

Other organizations and procedures that play a role in the management of the Internet are listed below:

  • Other Internet Organizations
  • Find mailing lists.
  • Find MUD servers
  • Create A Usenet Alt newsgroup
  • Create A Usenet 8 newsgroup
  • Find IRC networks
  • W3C — World Wide Web Consortium


  

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INTERNET ARCHTECTURE

 

It provides you with an introduction to the technical and organizational structure of the Internet. First, using simple examples, you will be introduced to the way the Internet works, the processes involved in keeping it running, and the entities that have put it all together and continue to do so. You are encouraged to follow the links available in the first section, "An Introduction to Internet Infrastructure." Familiarity with these materials will help you appreciate the complexity of the network architecture as well as the degree of coordination needed to complete even the most basic Internet transaction. It is important to understand what the term “architecture” means. The notion of Internet architecture was introduced during the Internet research phase by the research community that had developed the ARPA net protocols. Network architecture is a set of high-level design principles that guides the technical design of the network, especially the engineering of its protocols and algorithms. There are two most commonly use architecture in Internet technology; peer-to-peer and client server architecture.

 

 

Peer-to Peer

 

Peer-to-peer is a communications model in which each and every node are capable of sharing information and can initiate a communication session. On the Internet, peer-to-peer (referred to as P2P) is a type of transient Internet networks that allows a group of computer users with the same networking program to connect with each other and directly access files from one another’s hard drives. Napster and Gnutella are examples of this kind of peer-to-peer software.

 

 

Client-Server

 

The Client-Server Architecture is based on the principle where the client computer requests for some data and the data are sent by the server computer through the network. The concept of client/server computing has particular importance on the Internet because most of the programmers are built using this design. Servers are powerful computers or processes dedicated to managing disk drives, printers or network traffic. Clients are PCs or workstations on which users run applications. Clients rely on servers for resources, such as files, devices, and even processing power.

 

 

 

INTERNET ACCESSING

 

In order to access the Internet, one requires the following:

 

·         A computer with necessary client software

·         The connectivity through Internet Service Provider (ISP) for flow of data

·         Host computer(s) hosting the desired data

 

 

 

The Computer (client side)

 

 

In order to connect to the Internet one needs a computer with necessary hardware and software devices for connecting.

 

 

The necessary hardware devices that must have on the client computer are:

 

·         Processor of Pentium (Intel based) or AMD or Macintosh

·         Network Interface Card (NIC)

·         Modem, it can be an external or internal (fitted inside the computer)

 

 

The necessary software’s that must have on the client computer are:

 

·         Operating system like Windows, UNIX, LINUX or OS/2 etc.

·         Web browser like Netscape, Internet explorer, Firefox etc.

 

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The connectivity

 

Common methods of Internet access in homes include dial-up, Landline broadband (ADSL) (over coaxial cable, fiber optic or copper wires), Wi-Fi, satellite and 3G technology cell phones. We will concentrate basically on the following methods:

 

·         Dial-up connections and

·         ADSL connections

·         Cable connections

 

 

 


Dial-Up Connections


Dial-Up Connections is a type of Internet connectivity that operates through a standard telephone line. Before a person can subscribe to a dial-up service, he or she must have a computer and dial-up modem. Dial up internet service is provided through several ISP. The majority of internet service providers give you a set of telephone numbers either national or local that allows you to dial into a network that feeds into the internet. A telephone line feeds into the modem. The modem is controlled by software in the computer; for example, the Network Connections utility that comes with Microsoft Windows Operating systems. Here you can setup a profile for the ISP (internet service provider, like BSNL), which will tell the modem what phone number to call and how to communicate with the dial-up service. The ISP itself provides this information. The service needed in order to dial-up connect to the Internet is available from many sources. Free services can sometimes be found, along with pay services like AOL, MSN, Earth link and other ISP companies.

 

 

Upon joining a dial-up service, the subscriber chooses a username and password. Once the modem calls the phone number and makes a connection, a “handshake” takes place in which information is exchanges between the computer modem and the remote server. The username and password is supplied by the modem. This grants the user access through the dial-up gateway to the Internet. When you are finished, you hang-up and your connection is broken. Dial-up connections can be very economic and are widely available; the cost per minute is comparable to that of a local phone call, or priced as a monthly plan which will include a certain amount of time. As these connections use a standard modem the hardware costs are minimal. Dial-up connections are very slow compared to the other connection types. When connected to the Internet the same phone line cannot be used for phone calls, so if anyone phones you when you are connected they will get the busy signal.

 

 

Dial-up connections transfer data over an analogue line so before the data is sent it has to be converted from digital to analogue, likewise when data is received it has to be converted from analogue to digital (this is what the modem does), this adds a performance overhead which affects the speed of the connection.

 

 


ADSL Connection

 

ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line) connections are becoming more and more widely available and can provide an excellent internet connection.

 

The connections work by splitting your phone line into two separate channels, one for data (internet) and one for voice (phone calls), which means you can talk on the phone and be connected to the internet at the same time.

 

You will often see ADSL connection services advertised as having different speed specifications, below are common configuration:

 

          256Kbps/128Kbps

          512Kbps/128Kbps

          1Mbps/256Kbps

          2Mbps/512Kbps

          8Mbps/1024Kbps

 

Notice there are two values to each configuration, the first figure states the download speed and the second figure is the maximum upload speed. As an example let’s take the second configuration 512Kbps/128Kbps, this means that you can potentially download data at a speed of 512Kbps and upload data at 128Kbps.

 

ADSL connection Pros

 

Apart from the obvious speed advantages that ADSL connections offer, ADSL technology eliminates the need for a second phone line by allowing voice and data transfer at the same time. Because ADSL transfers data digitally it eliminates the usual performance overhead associated with standard dial-up connections, in other words ADSL does not need to convert the data from digital to analogue and back again.

 

 

ADSL connection Cones

 

ADSL connections are not available to everyone; you should always ensure that you have ADSL coverage in your area. The hardware costs can be quite significant as you will need a special ADSL modem and ADSL filters to use the service. Most ISPs allow you to hire these items which can reduce the initial cost. Because ADSL connections are always on you need a firewall to protect your PC.

 

 

Cable Connections

 

Cable connections are considered one of the best types of Internet connection available to the home user; they offer very fast and reliable connections with a fixed monthly fee. Cable companies usually offer different packages to suit different internet subscribers, your choice of package, as with all internet connections, will depend on how you intend to use the internet.

 

The different packages will offer different speed specifications and bandwidth limits. Because a cable connection uses a totally separate medium to transfer data it does not affect ability to make or receive phone calls.

 

Cable connection Pros

 

Speed is a major reason for having a cable connection, with very high speed packages available it is an excellent choice for those who don’t like to wait around tapping their fingers when downloading big files such as music or large attachments. Like ADSL connections, cable connections transfer data digitally, eliminating any digital or analogue conversion overhead. Cable connections are always on, eliminating long waits to make a connection.

 

 Cable connection Cons

 

Cable connections are not available in every area; you will need to contact the cable company of your choice to ensure that you have coverage. Because cable connections are always on you will need a firewall to protect your PC.

 

 

Types of Internet Cables


Ethernet cable

An Ethernet cable connects a computer, a laptop, or even a game console to a router or modem. It sends and receives broadband signals so that computers can communicate with each other and transfer data from one to another.1 It’s one of the most common tools that computers use to transfer data across the Internet. A special kind of Ethernet cable, however, called a “cross-over cable,” connects two computers to each other directly and thus doesn’t need a modem or router to transfer data. These physical cables are limited by length and durability. If a network cable is too long or of poor quality, it won't carry a good network signal. These limits are one reason there are different types of Ethernet cables that are optimized to perform certain tasks in specific situations.

 

Coaxial cable

A Coaxial Cable is a cable most often used to connect a cable box or modem to the incoming connection port in the wall. They can be analog, which typically have a small pin in the center of the connection and screw on, or digital, which press in and stay connected due to pressure. Coaxial cable has an obvious advantage over other types of radio transmission line. In a good coaxial cable, the electromagnetic field carrying the signal exists only in the space between the inner conductor and the outer conducting shield. For this reason, coaxial cables are allowed to be installed next to metal objects without power losses that occur in other types of radio transmission line.

 

Coaxial cables are made up of several parts:

·         A conductor, which is the center wiring that actually transmits the data

·         Two to three layers of shielding to protect the signal from electrical interference

·         And a layer called the jacket which physically protects the cable

HDMI cable

HDMI stands for “High-Definition Multimedia Interface,” and an HDMI cable is used for transmitting audio and video data in a single cable. HDMI cables are used to connect devices including:

·         HDTV’s

·         Video game systems

·         Laptops

·         DVD players

 


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