All About Assam | History, Population, Festival, Tourism, District & Facts. | Eduassams.com


All About Assam

Assam



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assam wikipedia, assam religion, assam city, assam population 2019, essay about assam, assam capital, assam food, assam destinations,

















Assam 

History and geography




Area of Assam 
78,438 sq km.
Population of Assam 
35.56608 Million
(estimated 2019)
Capital of Assam
Dispur
principle Language of Assam.

Total District of Assam
33




Origin Of Assam :


The word “Assam” as an interpreted by some scholars is derived from the Sanskrit word Asoma meaning peerless or unparalleled. But the widely accepted opinion of the academic circles today is that the term has come from the original name of the Ahoms, who ruled the land for about six hundred years prior to its annexation by the British. The races like Austric (from south east Asia), Mongolian (from Asia through Himalayan Hill), Dravidian and Aryan that came to this land long long ago have contributed to its composite culture. Thus Assam has a rich legacy of culture and civilisation. The State is adorned with beautiful lush covers of greenery, a chain of hills and rivers mainly the Brahmaputra and the Barak. It has been the living place of various races, tribes and ethnic groups since time immemorial. The dynamics of synthesis and assimilation of the races make Assam glorified and rich.





    Assam was known as Pragjyotisha or the place of eastern astronomy during the epic period and later named as Kamrupa. The mythology regarding the origin of the name Kamrupa tells us the story of Sati who died due to the discourtesy shown to her husband by her father Daksha. Overcame by grief, Shiva carried her dead body and wandered throughout the world. In order to put a stop to this, Vishnu used his discus to cut the body into pieces, which then fell into different places. One such piece fell down on Nilachal hills near Gauhati and the place was henceforth held sacred as Kamakhya. But Shiva’s penance did not stop, so the Gods sent Kamdev, the cupid to break his penance by making him fall in love. Kamdev succeeded in his mission, but Siva enraged at this result, burnt Kamdev to ashes. Kamdev eventually regained his original form here and from then onward the country came to be known as Kamrupa (Where Kama regained his Rupa or form).  



     The earliest epigraphic reference to the kingdom of Kamrupa is found in the Allahabad pillar inscription of king Samudragupta. Kamrupa is mentioned as a Pratyanta or frontier state outside the Gupta empire but with friendly and subordinate relation to it. Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese scholar pilgrim who visited Kamrupa in about 743 AD on an invitation of its monarch, Kumar Bhaskar Varman, left a record of the kingdom he called Kamolupa. Kamrupa also figured in the writings of the Arabian historian Alberuni in the eleventh century. Thus, from the epic period down to the twelfth century AD, the eastern frontier kingdom was known as Pragjyotisha and Kamrupa and kings called themselves ‘Lord of Pragjyotisha’.



    The advent of the Ahoms across the eastern hills in 1228 AD was the turning point in Assam history. They ruled Assam nearly for six century. The Ahom dynasty was established by Sukaphaa, a Shan prince of Mong Mao who came to Assam after crossing the Patkai Mountains. It is between 13th and 19th century that several tribal communities also came into the historical forefront of Assam. Kacharis, Chutias and Koch were the prominent tribal groups that were found in the medieval times of Assam. The Burmese entered through  the eastern borders and overran the territory at a time when court intrigues and dissensions were sapping the vitality of the Ahom royalty. The first Anglo-Burmese war took place in four places- 


(1) Brahmaputra valley i.e. Ahom Kingdom,

 
(2) Cachar, 


(3) Manipur and 


(4) Burma i.e. present Myanmar. 




     In the battle that took place in Burma, Burmese were completely defeated. Finally Burmese had to surrender and were compelled to sign the Treaty of Yandaboo.


      The second article of the Treaty of Yandaboo contained matters relating to Assam. By the provision of the Treaty of Yandaboo Burmese could not interfere in the matters of Assam, Cachar and Jayantia kingdom. The treaty of Yandaboo brought to the end of Burmese rule in Assam and paved the way for the introduction of the rule of the East India Company in Assam and the North-East. The Treaty of Yandaboo was a milestone in the history of north-east India.  It became a British protectorate in 1826 when the Burmese ceded Assam to the British under the provision of the Treaty of Yandaboo. 


      Assam is the sentinel of North-East India and gateway to the North-Eastern states. The state Assam is close to India’s international borders with Bangladesh and Bhutan.


      Assam is surrounded by Bhutan and Arunachal  Pradesh on the North, Manipur, Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh on the East and Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram on the South.





The Assam  Movement :



The Assam Movement (1979-1985) was a popular movement against illegal immigrants in Assam. The movement, led by All Assam Students Union (AASU) and the All Assam Gana Sangram Parishad (AAGSP), developed a program of protests and demonstration to compel the Indian government to identify and expel illegal, (mostly Bangladeshisi), immigrants and protect and provide constitutional, legislative and administrative safeguards to the indigenous Assamese people. The agitation programs were largely non-violent, but the Nellie massacre was a case of extreme violence. The agitation program ended in August 1985 following the Assam Accord, which was signed by leaders of AASU-AAGSP and the Government of India. 


      The Assam Accord (1985) was a Memorandum of Settlement (MoS) signed between representatives of the Government of India and the leaders of the Assam Movement in New Delhi on 15 August 1985. A six-year agitation demanding identification and deportation of illegal immigrants was launched by the All Assam Students’ Union (AASU) in 1979.




Agriculture of Assam :



Assam is an agricultural state. Agriculture occupies an important place in the economy of the state Assam. The principal food crop is rice. The cash crops are jute, tea, cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, potato etc. noteworthy horticulture items are orange, banana, pineapple, betel nut, coconut, guava, mango, jackfruit and citrus fruits. The state Assam has an estimated 39.83 lakh hectare gross cropped area of which net area sown is about 27.24 lakh hectare. 


Forests :


Assam is known for her rich forest wealth which constitutes 26.22 per cent of the total forest area. 


Wild life of Assam :



The State (Assam) has five National parks and eleven wildlife sanctuaries.National Park are- 



   1.Kaziranga National Park, 

   2.Manas National Park,



   5.Orang National Park.



     The Kaziranga National Park and Manas Tiger Project (National Park) are internationally famous for the one horned Rhino and Royal Bengal Tiger respectively.



River of Assam:


Major tributaries of Brahmaputra River System




Tributaries from North bank
Tributaries from South bank
The Kameng (Jiabharali in Assam)
The Dikhow
The Champamati
The Krishnai
The Saralbhanga

The Aie

The Sankosh




* The vital courses of Assam are Brahmaputra and Barak stream.





Total District of Assam :


There are 33 district in Assam.The total district of Assam are :-  

 1. Tinsukia,
 4. Charaideo, 
 5. Sivasagar, 
 6. Lakhimpur,
 7. Majuli, 
 8. Jorhat, 
 9. Biswanath,
11. Karbi Anglong,
12. Sonitpur, 
13. Nagaon, 
14. Hojai, 
15. Karbi Anglong West, 
16. Dima Hassao, 
17. Cachar, 
18. Hailakandi, 
19. Karimganj, 
20. Morigaon, 
21. Udalguri, 
22. Darrang, 
24. Baksa, 
25. Nalbari,
26. Kamrup, 
27. Barpeta, 
28. Chirang, 
29. Bongaigaon, 
30. Goalpara
31. Kokrajhar,
32. Dhubri, 
33. South Salmara Mankachar. 








INDUSTRY :



Of agriculture-based industries, tea occupies an important place. There are six industrial growth centres in the State and two such centres are being set up at Balipara and Matia. Presently four oil refineries have been working in the State including the one at Digboi. Construction of the Export Promotion Industrial Park (EPIP) at Amingaon near Guwahati is nearing completion. A software Technology Park will be constructed at Borjhar near Guwahati (ASSAM). A Central Institute for Plastic Engineering Technology (CIPET) has been established at Amingaon near Guwahati. Assam has always enjoyed the highest reputation for her arts and craft associated with her cottage industries. Cottage industries include handloom, sericulture, cane and bamboo articles, carpentry, brass and bell-metal crafts. Assam produces varieties of silk, Endi, Muga, Tassar, etc. Muga silk is produced only in Assam in the world. 


POWER :


The major power stations are Chandrapur Thermal Project, Namrup Thermal Project and a few Mobile Gas Turbine Unit along with a mini hydro-electric project. Revitalising the Thermal Power Station of Bongaigaon and the on-going Karbi Langpi Project will boost the power supply in the State.



Assam's Transport :



Roads:


      The total length of roads in the State is 37,515 km which includes  2,836 kms of National Highways. The construction of 160 km of barbed wire fencing and 27 kms of the border road along the Indo-Bangladesh International Border have been completed.

Railways:


     The length of railway track in Assam is 2,284.28 km under metre-gauge lines.


Aviation : 



   The regular civil air services operate from Lokopriya Gopinath Bordoloi Airport (Guwahati), Salonibari (Tezpur) , Mohanbari (Dibrugarh) , Kumbhirgram (Silchar) , Rawriah  ( North Lakhimpur) .




Festivals of Assam :


Assam has an exclusive range of colourful festivals. Bihu is the chief festival celebrated on three occasions. Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu marks the advent of the cropping season and it also ushers in the Assamese New YearBhogali Bihu or Magh Bihu is the harvest festival and Kati Bihu or Kongali Bihu coming in autumn is a simple affair.




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Rongali Bihu Celebration- Assam













Rongali Bihu or Bohag Bihu :


The Bohag Bihu is known as Rongali Bihu. The Bohag Bihu falls on the last day of the Chaitra month. The first day of Bohag Bihu is meant for the cattle. Cattle are bathed and adored. From the second day the Bihu is meant for men. New clothes are worn by the rich and the poor a like. Presentation of Bihuwan is made. People enjoy the Bihu with feasting, merriment, dance and singing Bihu song. Now-a-days Bihu competitions are held on open stages in village and town alike. 



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Magh Bihu celebration.- Assam



Bhogali Bihu or Magh Bihu :



The Magh Bihu is known as Bhogali Bihu. The special feature of Bhogali Bihu is feasting.  This Bihu is mainly related to harvesting and is welcomed with the worship of God of fire. People make meji and haralighar from bamboo, leaves and thatch near the village. All the people of the village assembled there and pass the night having  feasting and merriment, and then burn the Meji the next morning. Cock-fight, bullfight and buffalo fight are some of the special games that played in this Bihu. In some other place where the Mejis were burnt, the committee organised different kinds of games for the kids, men, and for the women for their entertainment.




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Kati Bihu Celebration. Picture of Lighting Lamp- Assam














Kongali Bihu or Kati Bihu :


    Kati Bihu also called Kongali Bihu. In the Kati Bihu earthen mustard oil  lamps (Aakash Banti)  are lightens at the paddy field to worship and pray to welcome the Goddess of Lakshmi . This Bihu also related to agriculture. As we know this Bihu is Kongali Bihu that means in this time there is not too much to eat in this Bihu. For this whole Kati month people of Assam lighting the lamp in front of the sacred tulsi plant. The Aakash Banti were  lit up high on the tips of tall bamboo. The farmers pray for the good health for their production of crops. The scientific reason behind the lighting of lamps is to fly away the insects from the field and to free from insects.


 Bihu is one of the main features of Assamese cultures. Bihu unites the people forgetting all jealousy , ill-feeling and previous misdeeds done to others.


     Religion accounts for a large variety of festivals in Assam. Vaishnavites observe the birth and death anniversaries of prominent Vaishnava saints through day-long singing of hymns and staging of Bhaonas (theatrical performances in traditional style). Ambubachi in Kamakhya shrine, Sivratri Mela at Umananda and other places near Siva temples, Durga Puja, Diwali, Dol-jatra, Id, Christmas, Ashokastami Mela and Rash Mela, Parasuram Mela  are other religious festivals. 



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Jaapi With Gsmosa symbol of Assamese culture and tradition.- Assam



ASSAM  TOURISM :



Important places of tourism in and around Guwahati are Kamakhya temple, Umananda(Peacock Island), Navagrah (Temple of nine planets),Basistha AshramDolgobindaGandhi Mandap, State Zoo, State Museum, Sukreswar temple, Gita Mandir, Madan Kamdev temple, a magnificent archaeological place of interest, and Saraighat bridge.


  Other places of tourist interest in the State are :-  Kaziranga National Park (Famous for one horned rhino), Manas Tiger ProjectPobi-tora and Orang (Wildlife sanctuaries), Sibsagar (Shiv temple- Rangghar- Karengghar) , Tezpur ( Bhairavi temple for its scenic beauty), Bhalukpung (Angling) Haflong (Health resort with Jatinga hills), Majuli (Largest river island in the world), Chandubi lake (Picnic spot), Hajo (meeting point of Buddhism, Hinduism and Islam) , Batadrava (Birth place of great Vaishnava saint Sankardeva) and Sualkuchi (Famous for silk industry). The brand ambassador of Assam is the Bollywood actress Priyanka Chopra was made on December 19, 2016. But Finance and Health minister Himanta Biswa Sarma had informed in a tweet on July 16 that actress Priyanka Chopra is no longer with the Assam Government as her contract had expired.  


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The traditional Assamese Gamosa is the symbol of Assamese culture and tradition.





The traditional Assamese Gamosa is the symbol of Assamese culture and tradition. Gamosa is used to honour elders and younger ones alike and portrays a high degree of respect.





GOVERNMENT  OF  ASSAM :




The first Governor of independent Assam was Sir Muhammad Saleh Akbar Hydari and Chief Minister was Gopinath Bordoloi who witnessed the foundations laid of Gauhati University (1948), Gauhati High Court (1948) and Guwahati station of All India Radio (AIR). When Gopinath Bordoloi passed away in 1950, Bishnu Ram Medhi took over as the next Chief Minister of Assam. During his tenure from 1950 to 1957, the First Five-Year Plan was started, Panchayat system of governance was introduced and the agricultural sector got more importance.


Assam Government :



 Member
126
Governor
Secretary
Alok Kumar 
Chief Minister 
Jurisdiction of Guwahati High Court

All North-Eastern State



List of Ministers of Assam 2019.



Minister
Ministry
Chief Minister of Assam, GAD, SAD, Personnel, Administrative Reform and Training (Assam Administrative Staff College), Border Area Development, Social Welfare, I&PR, Revenue, Disaster management, Power, Implementation of Assam Accord
Finance, Planning and Development,PWD, Health and Family Welfare,
Atul Bora
Agriculture, Horticulture and Food Processing, Animal Husbandry and Veterinary, Urban Development, Town and Country Planning
Pramila Rani Brahma
Environment and Forests, Soil Conservation and Mines and Mineral departments
Ranjit Dutta
Irrigation, Handloom and Textiles
Parimal Suklabaidya
Fisheries and Excise
Keshab Mahanta
Water resource, Science and Technology, Information & Technology Departments
Pallab Lochan Das
Labour and Employment and Tea Tribes Welfare
Commerce and Industry, Transport and Parliamentary Affairs
Rihon Daimary
Public Health Engineering, Food and Civil Supply and Consumer Affairs
Naba Kumar Doley
MoS(I/C) Panchayati Raj and Rural Development, Youth Welfare and Cultural Affairs
Siddhartha Bhattacharya
Moss(I/C) Education



How does the Internet works ? In Assamese Language. 

Click Here👉 . ইন্টাৰনেটৰ পৰিভাষা কি?


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